Air Pollution in Washington: Audience Profile and Outline

Audience Profile

The target audience that I intend to reach with the project is composed of people aged 30-45 whose awareness of the state of Washington air is too low. These people are young and active, and they are most likely to have little children. Thus, the focus on the detrimental effect of air pollution will be related to the selected audience since they will desire to protect their families and, particularly, children, from negative effects.

The values of the target audience include a healthy lifestyle, quality family time, and a flexible work-life balance. These people have bachelor’s or master’s degrees, and some of them may have a Ph.D. The socio-economic stability of the target audience is high since many of its members own businesses or are self-employed. Apart from that, many people of this age are freelanced or work in offices. Whatever their professional choice is, all of the target audience representatives need to be aware of the threat to air that is currently posed by a large amount of pollution.

Gender and ethnicity factors are not limited since it does not matter what nationality one belongs to as long as he or she is a citizen of the US. These people do not tend to have any specific religious views, but some of them may attend churches. They predominantly lead active lifestyles, and their interests are frequently associated with sports. The issues that scare the target audience most of all involve the impossibility to arrange their lives flexibly and the inability to provide their children and themselves with the best healthcare options. Taking into consideration the aspects included in the audience profile, it will be possible to reach the audience at their workplaces, in gyms, parks, and through online media.

Outline

Thesis

Due to the high level of air pollution in Washington state, there is a growing threat to the health of some population groups, such as pregnant women and people suffering from heart disease and respiratory infections.

Reason 1

Polluted air is a serious problem since it affects the most vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and newborns.

  • Evidence. Due to the detrimental effect of air pollution on the organism of a pregnant woman, such serious disorders as gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia can develop in this population (Lee, Roberts, Catov, Talbott, & Ritz, 2013; Malmqvist, Jakobsson, Tinnerberg, Rignell-Hydbom, & Rylander, 2013). Specifically, the first-trimester exposure to particles (mostly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone) has the potential to elevate the risk not only for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia but also preterm delivery and small for gestational age infants (Lee at al., 2013).
  • Evidence. According to a cohort study that was performed in western Washington state, 117 cases of preeclampsia were identified. Also, the risk was reported to be high due to “ambient CO and PM2.5 exposures” (Lee et al., 2013, 546).

Reason 2

Another serious effect produced on the population is the reduction in life expectancy.

  • Evidence. A reduction of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration is identified with the rise in mean life expectancy of “0.35 years SD= 0.16 years, p = 0.033” (Correia et al., 2013, p. 23).
  • Evidence. The association between PM2.5 concentration decrease and life expectancy increase is more vividly expressed in urban areas than in remote counties (Correia et al., 2013). Since Washington state is densely populated, there is a high likelihood that its population is under the threat of reduced life expectancy due to air pollution issues.

Reason 3

Air pollution is one of the major triggers of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) that are highly dangerous for young children.

  • Evidence. ALRIs are accountable for 20% of mortality cases among young children all over the world (Mehta, Shin, Burnett, North, & Cohen, 2013). Research evidence indicates that there is a causal connection between exposure to PM2.5 and the ALRI occurrence (Mehta et al., 2013).
  • Evidence. The most serious cases of ALRIs are represented by bronchiolitis and pneumonia, which compose the largest “single cause of mortality” among young children (Mehta et al., 2013, p. 69). 90% of mortality cases are attributable to pneumonia, which means that there is a need to eliminate air pollution to reduce the danger posed to the lives of young children (Mehta et al., 2013).

Reason 4

There is a close relation between air pollution and heart failure hospitalization, which frequently results in heart failure mortality.

  • Evidence. According to Shah et al. (2013), there is a positive association between heart failure hospitalization and all particulate and gaseous air pollutants except ozone. Thus, air pollution is a prevalent public health issue negatively affecting the cardiovascular system, and the negative outcomes of such prevalence are critical.
  • Evidence. Additionally, it is necessary to mention that the study by Shah et al. (2013) focuses only on short-term exposures to air pollution, whereas the effect of chronic exposure could be even more serious. Overall, the effect of air pollution on people’s cardiovascular system is highly negative, and it is important to take measures to increase citizens’ awareness and eliminate the detrimental outcomes.

References

Correia, A. W., Pope, C. A., Dockery, D. W., Wang, Y., Ezzati, M., & Dominici, F. (2013). The effect of air pollution control on life expectancy in the United States: An analysis of 545 US counties for the period 2000 to 2007. Epidemiology, 24(1), 23-31.

Lee, P.-C., Roberts, J. M., Catov, J. M., Talbott, E. O., & Ritz, B. (2013). First trimester exposure to ambient air pollution, pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes in Allegheny County, PA. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(3), 545-555.

Malmqvist, E., Jakobsson, K., Tinnerberg, H., Rignell-Hydbom, A., & Rylander, L. (2013). Gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in association with air pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(4), 488-493.

Mehta, S., Shin, H., Burnett, R., North, T., & Cohen, A. J. (2013). Ambient particulate air pollution and acute lower respiratory infections: A systematic review and implications for estimating the global burden of disease. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 6(1), 69-83.

Shah, A. S. V., Langrish, J. P., Nair, H., McAllister, D. A., Hunter, A., Donaldson, K., … Mills, N. L. (2013). Global association of air pollution and heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 382(9897), 1039-1048.