Human Genome Project and New DNA Technologies


Since time immemorial, human health has been a key priority and an issue of great concern in all spectrum of humankind. This is so because the survival and/or good livelihood of humankind or any living organism is strongly subject to its health. In response to the need of improving human life, man has over the years been engaged in vigorous research in identifying the best ways of countering diseases and health complications threatening life. With the development of technology in the past two centuries, a significant development in biomedical science has been attained. This is demonstrated by the development of sophisticated equipment and technologies for the identification, prevention, treatment, and management of diseases. A point worth consideration is that longevity of humankind has over the past century realized a significant increase. This is attributed to medical and scientific advances which have been discovered by biomedical scientists. In particular, the technologies entailing the human genome project as well as the new DNA technologies have been identified as vital elements in biomedical science. These developments are expected to bring significant developments and transformations in medical diagnostics as well as treatment in the future. (1, 5-8) This paper will expound on the transformations and significance of the human genome project as well as the new DNA technologies in transforming medical diagnostics and treatment.


As outlined by Collins (1), the Human Genome Project is a crucial development and discovery in biomedical science which is focused to bring tremendous development in medical diagnostics and treatment. The project seeks to understand hereditary instructions or composition which makes every person different. This kind of knowledge is of great importance in medical health in the sense that, it has a vital role in facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Edwin (2) indicated that the main goal of the project is to examine the location of the 100,000 human genes as well as help to read the entire genetic script comprising of all 3 billion bits of information. This project has been identified to have a significant influence on human diagnostics and treatment in the future since it will offer medical practitioners the much-needed information in diagnosis and treatment.

The Human Genome Project is expected to transform the whole medicine and biology sector. Developing knowledge concerning human genes will be of great importance in the enhancement of human health. Graver & Graver (3) observed that human genes devise the development of every single-celled egg in formation of every person. It is worth noting that genes formation does not only influence how people look like but also what kind of diseases an individual can get (4). With this in mind, it is evident that the Human Genome Project will help in transforming human diagnosis as well as treatment in the future. This is so because nurses among other medical practitioners will have adequate knowledge concerning the health composition of every person. This is a key phenomenon in devising prevention measures and treatment of potential diseases. Hoffman (5) indicated that the Human Genome project will offer adequate knowledge and insights on the mysteries concerning the development of babies. This will have a key impact in ushering in a new era of molecular medicine with new and efficient diagnosis, treatment and prevention measures for diseases.

Errors in human genes which were previously experienced in medicinal health will be adequately countered through the adoption of the ideas developed by the Human Genome Project. Jang (6) postulated that errors in human genes are responsible for over 4000 hereditary diseases such as cystic fibrosis, duchenne muscular dystrophy, cancer, diabetes, and Huntington’s disease. Based on this scenario, Human Genome project offers nurses the needed knowledge concerning the gene composition of each person as well as the potential diseases. (7,8,16) This is of great importance in the diagnosis as well as in the treatment of the diseases, thus enhancing human health. Human Genome Project is expected to develop tools for the identification of genes involved in common and rare disease. This will be undertaken over the next 15 to 20 years, whereby, all information concerning human genes and their corresponding diseases will be established. Lander (8) discovered and established that such information will help in early detection and treatment of human diseases. This will also help in development of new approaches for disease prevention.

The ideas and knowledge established from the Human Genome project will help scientists to reveal the molecular basis of a disease. This information will give scientists the capacity to effectively defeat all human diseases. For instance, knowledge concerning the molecular basis of diseases will help scientists to design highly targeted drugs. This is of great importance in responding to the cause of disease rather than dwelling on the symptoms (8). The diagnosis and treatment of human diseases will receive significant boost as a result of this technology, since a high sense of efficiency in dealing with diseases will be attained. Ommen (9) explains the concept of gene therapy which will also receive significant development in the sense that scientists will have the knowledge concerning gene instruction and composition. As a result of this case, scientists will be able to replace or correct altered genes which are responsible for human diseases. This is of great importance in the sense that a high sense of efficiency in medical health will be attained. On the other hand, gene discovery will also help in predictive tests which will help in telling the likelihood of a person getting diseases long before the exposure of symptoms. With this in mind, preventive and treatment actions towards human diseases will be undertaken (9). Based on these insights, it is evident that human genome project will help in providing significant and positive transformation in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases in future.

Alongside the development of the Human genome project in enhancing biomedical science, new DNA technology has also been of great concern in the medical health sector. DNA technology has for many years been relied in the health sector; whereby, it is adopted in identification purpose (10).This has been widely adopted in forensic cases in identification of criminals, lost persons, rape cases as well as during accidents. Nevertheless, the advancement of technology in the 21st century has led to improvement of DNA technology, thus leading to its use in biomedical health. As indicated by Spengler (11) new DNA technology has found its use in the medical health, whereby, it is used in the diagnosis of diseases. This is a greater discovery in the health sector which gives great support in the fight against diseases. With the high diversity of genetic diseases in human spectrum, there has been every need to come up with better technologies and approaches for addressing these diseases. In this regard, new DNA technology has been the most recent technology in addressing human diseases. Watson (10) indicated that there are thousands of rare genetic diseases which cause tremendous burden of suffering to human kind. This phenomenon is however at the verge of being countered with the evolution of new DNA technology in the diagnosis of diseases.

The new DNA technology helps in the identification of human genes and the corresponding potential diseases. Through examination of human genes by adoption of the new DNA technology, scientists are given insights concerning genetic diseases. This is attained through extensive research which involves the collection of DNA samples of large families who are affected by diseases, and then undertaking examination of the samples across the genome. (12) This approach helps in identification of genetic diseases and the mutations that might be causing the diseases. This is a great breakthrough in the fight against genetic diseases in the sense that nurses will have explicit knowledge on the cause and nature of some of the genetic diseases. As a result of this knowledge, ease in diagnosis and treatment of diseases is facilitated. A point worth of consideration is that the new DNA technology will help in the unraveling of thousands of rare genetic diseases as well of providing their explanations. (13) This information is very crucial in the fight against diseases in the sense that better diagnosis and prevention measures will be attained.

Bowcock (13) indicated that the new DNA technology is far more than just being of academic interest. This is based on its extensive importance in facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Goodman (12) postulated that the findings and results of new DNA technologies entail the provision of robust information concerning mutations of genetic diseases. Provision of information concerning mutation of diseases helps in diagnosis and treatment process, thus boosting human health. Based on the research by Newton (14), full genetic diagnosis of patients and their families helps in provision of a sense of closure. This is a great discovery and development in the diagnosis of diseases, whereby decades and years of undertaking medical tests have not been able to provide clear answers. The inefficiencies entailed in diagnosis of diseases will be countered through the adoption of the new DNA technologies in the sense that high precise information concerning mutations of diseases will be established. New DNA technology will also help in identification of underlying gene, which in this case offers important clues in disease mechanism as it’s stated by Young. (15) This is very crucial in development of potential therapies for countering the diseases.

The rapid development and advances in new DNA sequencing technology has been acknowledged for provision of cost-effective alternatives in linkage analysis. New DNA technologies offer efficient solutions in analysis of genome linked to diseases. This phenomenon offers solution to the inefficiencies of the previous technologies in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. It is also worth noting that the new DNA technology will lead to a drastic decline of the cost of scanning DNA. This will be a great advancement in addressing diagnosis and treatment of diseases in future, thus boosting the health sector. (16)


With reference to the discussion and analysis of the concept of new DNA technology and the Human Genome project, it has been evident that these developments will be of great importance in transforming diagnosis and treatment of diseases. These technologies have high potentiality in the provision of very precise information concerning human gene composition. Knowledge and ideas established as a result of these technologies will facilitate efficient and effective diagnosis of diseases. This is so because scientists will be endowed with information and knowledge concerning which diseases an individual is likely to develop. With this in mind, the process of diagnosing and treatment of diseases will be transformed in future.


Collins F. New goals for the U.S. Human Genome Project. New York: Prentice Hall; 2006.

Edwin M. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome Nature. London: Routledge; 2001.

Graver K. & Graver B. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns. American Journal of Human Genetics 2001; 3(54): 148-158.

Ommen G.. The human genome project and the future of diagnostics, treatment, and Prevention. New York: Prentice hall; 2009.

Hoffman E. The evolving genome project: current and future impact. American Journal of Human Genetics 2003; 3(24): 129-135.

Jang W. Making effective use of human genomic sequence data. TIG 2004, 15(7): 284-286

Jordan E. The Human Genome Project: where did it come from, where is it going? American Journal of Human Genetics 2007; 6(3): 1-6.

Lander F. How is the Human Genome Project doing, and what have we learned so far? Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the USA 2001; 2(9): 0841-10848.

Venter J. The sequence of the human genome Science. New York: Prentice Hall; 2001.

Watson J. and Crick F. A structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic acid Nature. New York: Prentice Hall; 2004.

Spengler T. Emerging technologies from the Human Genome Project for understanding Susceptibility and risk. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2007; 4(2): 235-238.

Goodman L. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006

Bowcock A. Drift, admixture, and selection in human evolution: a study with DNA polymorphisms Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. New York: Routledge; 2003.

Newton D. DNA Technology: A Reference Handbook. New York: Prentice Hall; 2010.

Young D. and Leonard D. Issues in Genetic Testing. Clinical Chemistry 2004; 45(6): 915-926.

Bodmer W.and MeKie R. The Book of Man. New York: Scribner; 2005.