Pharmacology: Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Diabetes is a disease that attacks the endocrine system and affects both children and adults. If there is no medical attention, it can lead to loss of vision, stroke, kidney failure, and high blood pressure. Diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. Notably, diabetes is of three types: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (Peterson et al., 2007). Type 1 diabetes mostly affects children; it makes young people have antibodies against islet cells antigen. Clinically, its victims appear to be overweight and have acanthosis nigricans. Markedly, type 1 mostly affects people below the age of twenty who produce less or no insulin.

On the other hand, when the body produces less insulin and fails to use it, the body suffers from insulin-resistant diabetes (Peterson et al., 2007). This type 2 diabetes can take many years before one detects it and mostly affects fat people above 40 years. Victims lack antibodies and children appear to be overweight. In addition, it causes inactivity and ketosis in the victim’s body hence making their vision blurred.

However, gestational diabetes mostly affects pregnant women by causing high blood pressure. Moreover, it affects how the body cells use sugar in the bloodstream hence affecting the fetus’ health (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). Untreated victims give birth to babies who are overweight and have difficulties in breathing. Mothers tend to have birth complications that can result in stillbirth. After delivery, victims are capable of getting insulin-resistant diabetes. In prevention, victim mothers should eat balanced diets.

Type 2 diabetes is the most popular since it affects over 90% of diabetics. Metformin is an oral drug that treats this diabetes mellitus type 2. It restrains glucose that the liver produces thereby preventing liver complications (Metformin, n.d.). This makes the insulin receptors that make the body respond by decreasing the level of sugar in the blood thus leading to better disease control. Metformin oral is a preferred drug since it contains a solution that does not increase insulin produced in the body, therefore, it is less harmful than other drugs. The preparation process involves using metformin hydrochloride that has dimethylamine of 15ppm.

Then, metformin hydrochloride undergoes thorough pulverization followed by mixing metformin hydrochloride with C1-C4 alcohol solvents. The final step involves the isolation of the metformin hydrochloride.

For efficient work of the drug, a victim with type 2 diabetes should take a proper diet. A patient takes metformin orally with food and uses a spoon to in measuring the quantity. The prescription is one 5ml spoonful (500mg) 2-3 times after meals daily for those aged 10 years and above (Metformin, n.d.). In taking metformin, one should use a prescriber to check kidney functions and the level of sugar in the body with time. In addition, the patient should check the level of blood sugar as well as eat regularly.

The patient should follow medical prescription and only change with the prescriber’s permission. In case sugar level declines in the body, the patient should eat foods that contain sugar and inform the prescriber immediately. A patient under this antibiotic should remain hydrated by drinking a lot of water, resting, exercising regularly, and eating balanced diets. In addition, he/she should eat fresh vegetables, whole grains, and healthy foods (Metformin, n.d.). However, the patient should not eat foods that contain fats and too much sugar.

Type 2 diabetes develops some effects that one can manage if detected in the early stages. One of the early effects of this diabetes is insulin resistance, which involves the inability of the cells to use the insulin that the body has produced (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). The body becomes unable to use insulin due to the excess fat of being overweight. Moreover, some patients may experience extreme thirst, urgent urge to urinate, dry skin, fatigue, and hunger.

At times, some people do not display or experience these signs. Other disorders include blurred vision, weight loss, and numbness on the feet and hands. Notably, some people who have high blood glucose levels than normal, yet not extreme to the level of being diabetic develop pre-diabetes. To avert the development of type 2 diabetes with high blood sugar levels, one should engage in moderate exercise daily and use a prescribed diet (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012).

On the long-term effects, there is nerve damage also known as nephropathy. The blood capillaries are tiny vessels that are prone to damage or injury from excess glucose. In the late stages, the toes and feet completely lose feeling or sense of touch. Notably, damaged nerves block the flow of blood hence leading to amputation (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). In addition, diabetics have a high chance of developing heart disease due to high blood pressure. This arises due to high cholesterol levels that increase the chances of stroke and heart attack. On using metformin drug, the blood glucose level adjusts to normal levels thereby maintaining the blood pressure to normal levels. Further, it causes weight to lose by removing the excess fats on the belly and lowering the cholesterol level.


Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012). Type 2 diabetes – MayoClinic. Mayo Clinic. Web.

Metformin. (n.d.). Drugs: Prescription Drug Information, Interactions & Side Effects. Web.

Peterson, K., Silverstein, J., Kaufman, F., & Warren-Boulton, E. (2007). Management of type 2 diabetes in youth: An update. American Family Physician, 76(5), 658-664.